<!doctype html public "-//w3c//dtd html 4.0 transitional//en"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"> <meta name="description" content="An amateur supported network of radio meteor-scatter receiving stationsroutinely monitoringthe level of meteor activity in the sky."> <meta name="keyword" content="meteor, meteor-scatter, meteor scatter, MS, GlobalMSNet, Global MS Net,Global-MS-Net"> <meta name="GENERATOR" content="Mozilla/4.75 [en] (Win98; U) [Netscape]"> </head> <body text="#000000" bgcolor="#000000" link="#0011FF" vlink="#0044FF" alink="#0044FF"> <center> <table width="500" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" summary="main page"> <tr bgcolor="#FFFFCC"> <td valign="top"> <p><BR></P> <img src="nasalogo.jpg" alt="NASA" align="left"> <center><font size=+3>Global Meteor-Scatter Network <BR>(Global-MS-Net)</font></center> <P> <hr> <P> <img src="echo.gif" alt="animation" align="bottom" width="500" height="114" align="left"> <P> <I>The mechanism of forward meteor scatter is shown nicely in this <a href="http://www.page.to/meteor">animation</a> by Pierre Terrier.</I> </P> <p>Global-MS-Net is a global network of automatic meteor counting stations, which uses the technique of forward meteor scatter to monitor the level of meteor activity. The network is made possible by a consortium of amateur radio meteor observers. <P> <p>Purpose of the network is to detect meteor outbursts: short enhancements of meteor rates that typically last 0.5 - 2 hours. Special effort is put into detecting meteor outbursts caused by the dust trails of <font color="#FB4F48">Earth-threatening long-period comets</font>. <P> <a href="http://www.kolumbus.fi/oh5iy"> Near real time reflection counts</a> are posted at Ilkka Yrjola's site. During major showers, live flux is reported by Hiroshi Ogawa's affiliated International Project for Radio Meteor Observations</a>. Monthly reports are compiled independently by Christian Steyaert in the form of a <a href="http://www.rmob.org/">Radio Meteor Observers Bulletin</a>. <p> Data are archived by <a href="http://leonid.arc.nasa.gov/pjenniskens.html">Dr. P. Jenniskens</a> of the SETI Institute, who is located at NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. The stored data are available to participating meteor observers. For information about the Global-MS-Net, and how to participate, send to Dr. Jenniskens at pjenniskens [at] mail.arc.nasa.gov. <P> <P><BR></P> <center> <p><font size=+2 color="#000000"><B>Possible outbursts under investigation</B></font></center> <p> <UL> <LI><font color="#FE4548">2007 Ursids, Dec. 22 </font>- Possible outburst of Ursids. Prediction by Peter Jenniskens and Jeremie Vaubaillon (paper in WGN, Dec. 2007 issue). Aurigid MAC mission. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2007 Aurigids, Sept. 1 11:26 UT </font>- Possible outburst of Aurigids. Aurigid MAC mission. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2007 Leonids, Nov. 19 </font>- Possible outburst of Leonids (1932-dust trail crossing). <LI><font color="#FE4548">2006 Leonids, Nov. 19 </font>- Possible outburst of Leonids (1932-dust trail crossing). Observing campaign in Spain. Paper in Icarus (2008). <LI><font color="#FE4548">2004 Epsilon Eridanids, Sept. 11 18:01 UT </font>- Possible return of a previously observed outburst. Predictions by Esko Lyytinen and Peter Jenniskens . <LI><font color="#FE4548">2004 Perseids, August 11 20:54 UT </font>- One-revolution trail from 1862 will pass to about +0.0012 AU from Earth orbit. Predictions by <LI><font color="#FE4548">2004 alpha Centaurids, Feb. 7 16:00 UT </font>- Possible return of a previously observed long-period comet outburst. Predictions by Esko Lyytinen and Peter Jenniskens. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2003 Leonids, November 13 + November 19 </font>- <a href="http://leonid.arc.nasa.gov/1998.html">Several predictions Esko Lyytinen, Jeremie Vaubaillon, David Asher, and Peter Jenniskens. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2003 Draconids, October 7 </font>- Predictions by Esko Lyytinen (19:00 UT) and Jeremie Vaubaillon (18:10 UT) - 1887 dust trail 21P/Giacobini-Zinner. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2003 Perseids, August 13 0h UT </font>- 11-revolution trail from the year 569. Solar longitude 139.82, (or between 139.81 and 139.82). Predictions by Esko Lyytinen. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2003 gamma-Delphinids, June 11 16:22 UT </font>- Possible return of a previously observed long-period comet outburst. Predictions by Esko Lyytinen and Peter Jenniskens. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2003 Puppids, April 23rd, 15:00 UT +- 1:00. </font>- Faint meteoroids ejected from comet Grigg-Skjellerup. Predictions by Jeremie Vaubaillon (IMCCE website) and Scott Messenger (M&PS, 37, 1491-1505, 2002). <LI><font color="#FE4548">2003 beta Tucanids, March 01 21:54 UT </font>- 1-revolution dust trail of comet C/1976 D1. Predictions by Esko Lyytinen and Peter Jenniskens. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2003 alpha Centaurids, Feb. 8 09:07 UT </font>- Possible return of a previously observed long-period comet outburst. Predictions by Esko Lyytinen and Peter Jenniskens. <LI><font color="#FE4548">2002 Ursids, Dec. 22 18-21 UT </font>- 1090 dust trail of comet 8P/Tuttle, Prediction by Esko Lytinnen. </UL> <P><BR></P> <center><B><font size=+2 color="#000000">Participating Stations</font></B></center> <P> <center><img SRC="worldmap.jpg" alt="world location sites" align="bottom" align="center"></center> <P> <P> <center><font color="#FE4548" size=+2>Finland</font></center> <p> <hr> <br> <a href="http://www.kolumbus.fi/oh5iy"><img SRC="ilkka.jpg" alt="sign" align=RIGHT></a> <p><font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Ilkka Yrj&ouml;l&auml; - OH5IY - email: oh5iy [at] sral.fi</font> <p>88.700, 107.900 MHz, B.W. = 15 kHz. Receiver location: <a href="http://www.kolumbus.fi/oh5iy">Kuusankoski</a>, Finland (26.4E,+60.9N). <p>Receivers: two synthesized car-radios modified to narrow band FM with RF pre-amplifiers. Antennas: two 3-element Yagi to SWfor both receivers, elevation angle 0&deg;. <p>Transmitters: several across Europe, but mostly in Germany (Kreuzberg, Grunten) with up to 100 kW ERP, horizontally polarized. <p>Observation method: FM squelch detection, no pulse noise rejection required. Data sampling system: DOS-based custom version of <a href="http://www.kolumbus.fi/oh5iy/msobs/mct5x.zip">counting software (MCT5)</a> running on laptop 386 PC, threshold triggering, sampling rate 32 ms. Computer logs separately total elapsed reflection times, the number of events exceeding threshold for a 10 minute period of both receivers. <p>Data since: September 1993. <p><a href="http://www.kolumbus.fi/oh5iy">Detailed information on the setup on I. Yrj&ouml;l&auml;'s website.</a>

<p><font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Esko Lyytinen - email: </font> <p>Frequency: Receiver location: <p>Receivers: <p>Transmitters: <p>Observation method: <p>Data since: <p>Detailed information on the setup on Esky Lyytinen's website.</a>

<center><h2><hr></h2></center> <center><font color="#FA494C"><font size=+2>Canada</font></font></center> <center><h2><hr></h2></center> <p><font size="+1" color="#FE4548">Jeff Brower (NKOL) - email: jbrower [at] meteorchaser.net</font> <P> Loveland, Colorado, USA <p>83.260 MHz, B.W. = 100 Hz <p>Receiver location: Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada (49 51' N, 119 34' W, at 427 meters). <p>Receiver: until Oct 2003: R-8500 receiver at 61.260 MHz; from that date ICOM PRC-1000 CW mode on 83.260 MHz <BR>Sensitivity: 0.32 uV for 10 dB S/N for CW mode <BR>Antenna: Until Feb 05 2003 21:00 UT: 1 Wavelength loop in attic - Main lobes Magnetic East & West. After Feb 06 (00 UT): 5 element log periodic aimed northeast with 0 degree elevation offset. It is located in a utility room at 1.5 m above ground level. Most rectenly: 5 element log Periodic 90 degrees (East) <p>Transmitter: Multiple 100 kW <BR> Notes: An intermittently active Montana station moved into the frequency interval that signs off between 07:15 and 08:30 UT and signs back on at 10:34 UT or 11:45 UT, depending on the day (from 2003 Aug 27 22:00 UT onwards) <p>Data acquisition: Dell Latitude CPXH 500GT Laptop computer. <BR>Data sampling system: MAnalyzer-B with 100 Hz bandwidth centered on 900 Hz <p>Data since: August 2002. <p>Jeff Brower's website <p> <h2><hr></h2></center> <center><font color="#FA494C"><font size=+2>Belgium:</font></font></center> <center> <h2><hr></h2></center> <a href="http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~hdejongh/astro/meteor/meteor.html"><img SRC="ghent.jpg" alt="sample" align=RIGHT></a> <p><font size="+1" color="#FE4548">Pierre de Groote - email: Pierre.DeGroote [at] rug.ac.be</font> <P> Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Krijgslaan 281 (S9), B-9000 Ghent, BELGIUM. <p>66.29 MHz (and 65.3 MHz for interference correlation), B.W. = 300 kHz <p>Receiver location: Astronomical Observatory, University of Ghent (3 42' 32" E, 51 01' 25" N). <p>Receiver: modified commercial FM receivers, with preamplifier. Antenna: two 4-element horizontal Yagis, elevation angle 30&deg;. <p>Transmitter: horizontally polarized, at 800 km in direction NE (per Febr. 1997) <p>Data acquisition: 12 bits PC-based A/D convertor, 250 Hz sampling rate. Interference rejection: dual setup: receiver (1) tuned at distant transmitter, receiver (2) tuned at empty frequency. Anticoincindence measurement with separate receiver rejects registration of broadband RF noise (lightning, computers, car ignition, etc). <p>Data since: January 1997. <p><a href="http://users.ugent.be/~hdejongh/astro/meteor/meteor.html">University of Ghent Automated Meteor Observations website</a> <p> <hr> <center> <p><font color="#FB484D" size=+2>Japan:</font></center> <center> <h2> <hr></h2></center> <font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Chikara Shimoda - email: DZB91458 [at] biglobe.ne.jp</font> <p>81.4 MHz, B.W. = 300 kHz. <p>Receiver location: Asahi, Nagano, Japan (137.9E, 36.1N). <p>Receiver: Trio KT-1100 AM-FM tuner. Antenna: 5-element Yagi pointed to the zenith. <p>Transmitter: FM-Japan 81.3 MHz, 10 kW ERP, horizontally polarized, at 180 km. <p>Observing method: Meteor echoes output from center-tuning meter recorded on a pen-recorder chart and counted manually. <p>Data since: March 1997. <p> <hr> <br><a href="http://www.tcp-ip.or.jp/~kaze/rmd.htm"><img SRC="suzuki.jpg" alt="sample" lign=RIGHT></a> <p><font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Kazuhiro Suzuki - email: kaze [at] tcp-ip.or.jp</font> <p>53.750 MHz, B.W. = 2.5 kHz. <p>Receiver location: Toyokawa Meteor Observatory (137.32E, 34.81N), Shiinoki, Toyokawa-city, Aichi, 442, Japan (137.9E, 36.1N). <p>Receiver: Icom IC-575, LSB mode. Antenna: dipole at 7 m above the ground. <p>Transmitter: JA9BOH beacon on 53.7500 MHz, 80 W ERP towards zenith, located in Sabae (in Fukui pref.), at 150 km in direction NNW. <p>Observing method: SSB mode, on-line FFT analysis, software HROFFT (runs under WIN95 on P166 or better with a sound card, makes one GIF image / 10 minutes, makes 43 to 180 MB of image datafiles/month, takes 8 to 15 hours/month to operate (check the dataimages for non meteoric propagation), additional software to produce numeric data from files. <p>Data since: January 1997. <br>Website Kazuhiro Suzuki <p> <hr> <p><font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Kimio Maegawa - email: kmaegawa [at] nicole.ei.fukui-nct.ac.jp</font> <p>50.017 MHz, B.W. = 2.5 kHz <p>Receiver location: Sugiyama Meteor Observatory, Japan (136.1E, 35.9N), <p>Receiver: AOR AR-8000. Mode: USB. Antenna: Dipole 1 m above the ground. <p>Transmitter: JA9YDB beacon (50 W CW, 53.7500 MHz) . <p>Observing method: USB mode, on-line FFT analysis, software HROFFT. Manual counting. Viewer: HROview. <p>Future plans: interferometric system that can make radiant maps <p>Data since: July 19, 1997. <br>Website Kimio Maegawa <center> <h2> <hr></h2></center> <center><font color="#FA494C"><font size=+2>Brasil:</font></font></center> <center> <h2> <hr></h2></center> <font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Gilberto Klar-Renner - email: klar [at] plug-in.com.br</font>. <P> 93.7 MHz, B.W. = 15 kHz. <P> Receiver Location: Arambar, a small city south of Porto Alegre - RS (31S, 52 30' W) <P> Receiver: Icom IC - R100 <P> Transmitter: Several across Brazil, distance 500-1200. <P> Observing method: FM narrow band <P> Antenna: 2 element yagi <P> Software: MCT5X (Ilkka) <p>Data since: July, 2003. <P> <h2> <hr></h2></center> <font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Rafael Haag - email: haag [at] if.ufrgs.br</font>. <P> Maurilio Ferreira 334, casa 9A, Porto Alegre, 91787-140, BRAZIL. observing method is: <P>frequency: 83.250 kHz video carrier channel 3, B.W. = 15 kHz. <p>Receiver location: Porto Alegre, Brasil (51 15' W, 30 10' S). <P>Receiver: homebrew downconverter to IF 28 MHz. Antenna: 2 ele. yagi point to the zenith. <p>Transmitter: Several across Brazil, distance 500-1200 km. <p>Observing method: USB mode, FFT analysis, HROFFT software (by K.Okawa). Viewer: HROview. Manual counting. <p>Optional: individual doppler FFT (Spectrogram 6.0) processed into DSP PC by HF SSB receiver. <P>website of Rafael Haag. <br>&nbsp; <p>Data since: October 1, 2000. <P> <hr> <center> <p><font color="#FA494C"><font size=+2>Australia:</font></font></center> <center> <h2> <hr></h2></center> <font size=+1><font size="+1" color="#FE4548">Bruce Mitchell - VK4ZMD - email: panda [at] modemss.brisnet.org.au</font> <p>88.3 MHz MHz, BW = 12 kHz <p>Receiver location: Conondale Ranges, Queensland, near Brisbane, Australia (26 45' S, 152 48' E) <p>Receiver: Pioneer digital car radio, FM, &lt; 0.5 uV. Antenna: Three element yagi 8 dBi gain, horizontal polarization. Geog. azimuth 205 deg (SSW), elevation 0 deg., height 8 m, altitude 235 m ASL. Preampl. NF &lt; 1.5 dB <p>Transmitter: Mt. Ulandra, Cootamundra, NSW (ABC FM) 24 hours. ERP: 50 kW, omni directional, distance 986 km. <p>Observing method: threshold triggering derived from AGC level, sampled every 25 ms via games port. Logging and analysis software written by observer. <p>Data since October 1, 2000 (preliminary). <p> <center><h2><hr></h2></center> <p><center><font color="#FA494C"><font size=+2>South Africa:</font></font></center> <center><h2><hr></h2></center> <font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Richard Wade and Louis Barendse - email: richwde [at] iafrica.com</font> <p>98.8 MHz or 99.3 MHz, B.W. = 15 kHz. <p>Receiver location: Nkwe Ridge Observatory. <p>Receiver: modified Salora SRP-22. Antenna: unknown. <p>Transmitter: under consideration (Port Elizabeth). <p>Observing method: same as I. Yrj&ouml;l&auml;. <p>Data since: not yet. 98.8 MHz data showed strong interference from local FM radio from ~200 km distance. <p> <hr> <center> <p><font color="#FA494C"><font size=+2>New Zealand:</font></font></center> <center> <h2> <hr></h2></center> <font size=+1 color="#FE4548">Ashley Marles and Raewyn Newnham - email: rj.newnham [at] clear.net.nz</font> <p>91.8 MHz MHz, B.W. = 15 kHz. <p>Receiver location: Christchurch, New Zealand. <p>Receiver: modified Pye Seeker FM mobilephone. Antenna: 3-element Yagi. <p>Transmitter: Auckland. <p>Observing method: same as I. Yrj&ouml;l&auml;. <p>Data since: none, setup unfinished. <center> <h2> <hr></h2></center> <center><font size=+2>Results</font></center> <p> <hr> <p><b><font size=+1>1. Daily counts of meteor reflections from a faraway transmitter:</font></b> <p><font size=+1>Daily counts of meteor reflections between August 7 and August 16, 1995. The daily variation is due to the changing altitude of the Earth's apex: early in the morning there are more meteors in the sky than late in the evening. The increase of rates around solar longitde 139.4 is due to the Perseid meteor stream (From: I. Yrj&ouml;l&auml;, P. Jenniskens, 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 330, 739-752 ):</font> <ul><img SRC="1-minute-count.gif" alt="one-minute counts" height=235 width=315></ul> <b><font size=+1>2. Yearly variation of meteor rates at a given time of the night</font></b> <p><font size=+1>The meteor count in 10-minute intervals at 5h UT for different days during the year. The first part of the graph are counts from 1994, the second part are counts from 1995. Note that the annual meteor streams show up much the same in both years. The 1994 Leonid meteor outburst is marked (From: I. Yrj&ouml;l&auml;, P. Jenniskens, 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 330, 739-752 ):</font> <p><img SRC="05h-counts.gif" alt="05h counts" height=184 width=417> <p><b><font size=+1>3. The detection of a meteor outburst of an Earth-threatening comet</font></b> <p><font size=+1>This is a detection of a meteor outburst: the 1994 Aurigid outburst. Note that the short peak of meteor activity did not occur in 1993 and 1995. The stream is caused by comet P/Kiess 1911 II. The comet has a period of 2000 years and was last seen in 1911 when it passed the Earth's orbit within less than two times the Earth-Moon distance (From: P. Jenniskens, 1997, Astron. Astrophys. 317, 953):</font> <ul><img SRC="aurigids.gif" alt="Aurigids" height=321 width=362></ul> <hr> <center> <p><font size=+2>Outbursts detected</font></center> <p> <hr> <ul> <li> <font size=+1>1994 Perseids, August 12</font></li> <li> <font color="#FA4E49"><font size=+1>1994 Aurigids, September 1</font></font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1994 Leonids, November 18</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1994 Ursids, December 23</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1995 Leonids, November 18</font></li> <li> <font color="#FA4950"><font size=+1>1995 alpha-Monocerotids, November 22</font></font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1995 Ursids, December 23</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1996 Perseids, August 12</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1996 Leonids, November 17</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1996 Ursids, December 23</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1997 Perseids, August 12</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1997 Leonids, November 17</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1997 Ursids, December 22</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1998 June Bootids, June 27</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1998 Draconids, October 8</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1998 Leonids, November 17</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>1999 Leonids, November 18</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2000 Leonids, November 17+18</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2000 Ursids, December 22</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2001 Leonids, November 18+19</font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2002 Leonids, November 19 </font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2003 Leonids, November 19 </font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2004 Leonids, November 19 </font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2005 Leonids, November 19 </font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2006 Leonids, November 19 </font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2007 Aurigids, September 1 </font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2007 Leonids, November 19 </font></li> <li> <font size=+1>2007 Ursids, December 22 </font></li> <br>&nbsp; <li> <font color="#FB4A48"><font size=+1>due to long-period comets</font></font></li> </ul> <hr> <p><font size=+2>Publications</font></center> <P> <hr> <P><font size=+1>E. Lyytinen, P. Jenniskens, 2003. Meteor outbursts from long-period comet dust trials. ICARUS 162, 443-452. </font> <P><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, E. Lyytinen, M.C. de Lignie, C. Johannink, R. Schievink, M. Langbroek, M. Koop, P. Gural, M.A. Wilson, I. Yrjola, K. Suzuki, H. Ogawa, P. de Groote, 2002. Dust trails of 8P/Tuttle and the unusual outbursts of the Ursid shower. ICARUS 159, 197-209. </font> <P><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, E. Lyytinen, 2001. 2000 Ursid Outburst Confirmed. WGN, the Journal of IMO 29, 41-45.</font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, E. Lyytinen, 2001, 2000 Ursid Outburst Confirmed, WGN, the Journal of IMO, 41-45</font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, E. Lyytinen, 2000, Possible Ursid outburst on December 22, 2000, WGN, the Journal of IMO</font><font size=+1></font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, H. Betlem, 2000, Massive remnant of evolved cometary dust trail detected in the orbit of Halley-type comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, Astrophysical Journal 531 (march 10) (Leonid records 1993-1999)</font><font size=+1></font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, 1998, On the dynamics of meteoroid streams, Earth Planets Space, 50, 555-567 (Perseids of 1994-1997)</font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, et al., 1998, On the unusual activity of the Perseid meteor shower (1989-96) and the dust trail of comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 301, 941-954 (Perseids of 1994-1996)</font> <p><font size=+1>I. Yrjola, P. Jenniskens, 1998, Meteor Stream Activity VI. A survey of annual stream activity by means of foreward meteor scatter, Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics 330, 739-752 (all radio reflections of 1994 and 1995)</font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, H. Betlem, M. de Lignie, M. Langbroek, 1997, The detection of a trail in the orbit of an Earth-threatening long-period comet, Astrophysical Journal 477 - March 1 (1994 alpha-Monocerotids)</font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, 1997, Meteor Stream Activity. IV. Meteor outbursts and the Sun's reflex motion, Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics 317, 953-961 (1994 Aurigids)</font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, 1996, A second Leonid outburst in 1995, WGN the Journal of IMO 23, 198-200 (1995 Leonids)</font> <p><font size=+1>P. Jenniskens, 1996, Meteor Stream Activity. III. The first in a new series of Leonid outbursts, Meteoritics and Planetary Science 177-184 (1994 Leonids)</font>

<hr> <center> Curator: Dr. PeterJenniskens. <BR>E-mail: pjenniskens [at] mail.arc.nasa.gov <BR> Last Updated: <b>Oct. 10, 2003</b> <P> <font size="-1"> Responsible <a href="http://www.nasa.gov">NASA</a> Official: Greg Schmidt. E-mail: gschmidt [at] mail.arc.nasa.gov, <a href="http://www.arc.nasa.gov">Ames Research Center</a> <BR> <A HREF="http://www.hq.nasa.gov/privacy.html"><EM>[NASA Privacy Statement, Disclaimer, and Accessibility Certification]</EM></A></font> <hr> <table widht=300> <tr> <td><font size="-1"> <img src="http://leonid.arc.nasa.gov/pdficon.gif" alt="pdf" align="left"> PDF files: <a href="http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/alternate.html"> Get Acrobat Reader</a>, <a href=" http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/access_simple_form.html">Get free translation service</a></font> </td> </tr> </table> </font> </center> </td> </tr> </table> </center> </body> </html>